Kartadan kartaga pul o’tkazish uchun qo’shimcha xarajat: Majburiy EHF rasmiylashtirish tartibi tanqidga uchrayapti

1-maydan boshlab jismoniy shaxslar o‘rtasidagi pul o‘tkazmalari bo‘yicha elektron hisobvaraq-faktura rasmiylashtirishi majburiy qilib qo‘yildi. Hozirda bitta EHF narxi 270 so‘mdan boshlanadi.

Bu – kartadan kartaga pul o‘tkazishda yo‘q joydan ortiqcha xarajat paydo bo‘ladi degani. 1-maydan boshlab banklar va to’lov tashkilotlari pul o’tkazmalari bo’yicha elektron hisobvaraq-fakturalar hisoblashni boshlaydi. Jismoniy shaxslar o‘rtasida pul o‘tkazmalari amalga oshirilganda, ularga ko‘rsatilgan xizmatlar uchun elektron hisobvaraq-fakturalar taqdim etish va rasmiylashtirilishning majburiy bo‘layotganligi bir qator iqtisodchilar va foydalanuvchilarning e’tirozlariga sababchi bo’lyapti.

Bu tartib pul o‘tkazish uchun komissiya “0” so‘m bo‘lgan taqdirda ham majburiy qo‘llaniladi. Soddaroq qilib aytganda, elektron to‘lov tizimlari orqali pul o‘tkazmalari amalga oshirilganda, har bir operatsiya uchun hisobvaraq-faktura rasmiylashtirish kerak. Yangi tartib P2P (“person to person” – shaxsdan shaxsga) amaliyotlari uchun qo‘llanadi. Click, Payme, Apelsin kabi to‘lov tizimlari yoki mobil bank xizmatlari orqali kimgadir pul o‘tkazib berilganida shunday hisobvaraq-fakturalar shakllantiriladi.

Bunday fakturalarni tadbirkorlik sub’yektlari, ya’ni elektron hujjat almashish operatorlari tuzib beradi. O‘zbekistonda hozirda bu xizmatni ko‘rsatuvchi operatorlar – Didox, E-faktura va Davlat soliq qo‘mitasining “Soliq servis” kabi platformalaridir.

Elektron hisobvaraq-fakturalarni jo‘natish xizmati qiymati Soliq qo‘mitasi bo‘linmasining hamda elektron hisobvaraq-faktura operatorlari hisoblangan tadbirkorlik subyektlarining ko‘rsatayotgan xizmati qiymatidan tashkil topadi (2023-yil 10-fevral holatiga 24 ta operator xizmat ko‘rsatmoqda).
Xizmatning qiymati operatorlar ko‘rsatadigan servisga qarab farqlanadi va o‘rtacha bitta hisob-faktura uchun 270 so‘mdan 450 so‘mgachani tashkil etadi.

Iqtisodchi Shuhrat Qurbonovning yozishicha, bu banklar va to‘lov tashkilotlarining kartadan kartaga o‘tkazmalar bo‘yicha xarajatlarini oshirishi mumkin. U elektron hisob-fakturalarni shakllantirishning eng arzon tarifi har bir EHF uchun taxminan 260-300 so‘m ekanini ta’kidlab, bundan elektron hujjat aylanishi operatorlari mamnun bo‘lishini ta’kidlagan.
Iqtisodchi Otabek Bakirovning yozishicha, bu band tadbirkorlik faoliyatini amalga oshirish uchun qulay shart-sharoitlar yaratmaydi, qaytanga qiyinlashtiradi va qimmatlashtiradi.

“Bitta faktura eng arzonida 300 so‘m va yil davomida milliardlab tranzaksiyalar o‘tishi inobatga olinsa, bu bir necha yuz milliard so‘m qo‘shimcha xarajat degani. Tabiiyki, bu xarajat yakunda iqtisodiyotga va iste’molchilarga yuklanadi”, – deydi u.

Iqtisodiyot va moliya vazirligi holat yuzasidan bayonotidan so’ng, Iqtisodchi Otabek Bakirov bir nechta savollarni o’rtaga tashladi. Uning fikricha, vazirlik ma’muriy yo‘l bilan narxni 1 so‘mgacha tushirishni noto‘g‘ri qarorni oqlashning chorasi deb ko‘rmoqda.
Bakirov operatorlar ko‘radigan zarar va bu zararlar boshqa tariflar oshishiga olib kelishi mumkinligini bildirdi. U chek bilan tasdiqlanadigan bitimlarda jismoniy shaxslarga elektron hisobvaraq-fakturalar nima uchun kerak degan savolni ham o‘rtaga tashlamoqda.

“Iqtisodiyot va moliya vazirligining P2P operatsiyalari uchun elektron hisobvaraq-fakturalarga majburlash, Soliq qo‘mitasining 3 yildan beri urinib kelayotgan, lekin jamoatchilik va hukumatning boshqa mustaqil tuzilmalari va Markaziy bank qarshiligi tufayli amalga oshmagan orzusiga yetkazadi. Soddaroq tilda aytganda, Soliq qo‘mitasi, uzr, Iqtisodiyot va moliya vazirligi P2P pul o‘tkazmalari bo‘yicha barcha axborotlarni qo‘lga kiritmoqchi va nazorat qilmoqchi”, – deb yozdi iqtisodchi.

Ba’zi mutaxassislar tomonidan, ushbu band farmon ekspertizadan o‘tkazilganidan so’ng qo‘shilganligi haqida taxminlar bildirilmoqda.

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